Agape vs Eros Part 4: The Frankfurt School

[This post is taken from chapter 23 of my book Weep Over Jerusalem, which can be downloaded here]

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With the Russian revolution, Marxists gained possession of one of the great empires of the world. They were able to use this populous and resource-rich land to conduct their socialist experiments. The results of these experiments were nightmarish. Millions upon millions of innocent people were murdered, and Christian congregations were destroyed, bringing about the largest generations of martyrs in the modern age. Whether in Russia, China, Cambodia or North Korea, wherever Marxist Communism is implemented, the same environment of misery and terror is to be found. By the 1940s, Marxism had been given its chance, and it had failed to deliver on every promise it made. But the obvious failure of Communism did not deter the great bulk of Jewish intellectuals, who were dismayed that Christians throughout the West were not clamoring to follow the Soviet Union’s example. These Jews refused to accept that their precious ideology was a failure. Instead they placed the blame on gentiles whose religion and morality prevented them from seeing the “truth” of Marxism.

For Jewish Marxists, the Communist Utopia is the inevitable outcome of history. They believe that in this future state, all “oppression” will be gone and there will be freedom to pursue every sinful impulse. In this Utopia, the law of God—against which the apostate Jews have fought since they attempted to murder the Living Word—would be banished forever. Therefore, the Jews viewed the rejection of Marxism as a failure of the West: a failure of Western civilization, a failure of Western religion, a failure of Western morality, and a failure of Western logic and reason.

This “failure” had to be corrected. By the 1930s many Jewish revolutionaries had come to realize that preaching to the masses about economic theory was not a winning strategy, so they changed their approach by combining the work of Freud and Marx. These Jewish revolutionaries had already decided that Marxism is the only reasonable ideology, and that it is therefore impossible for a reasonable person to reject Marxism. And since no one could reject Marxism on truly rational grounds, the rejection of Marxism must be due to some sort of mental or emotional defect. These Jews did not merely label their opponents as greedy, as was usually the case under classical Marxism. Instead, they declared their opponents to be mentally ill and incapable of accepting the truth until their inner life was radically altered. Freud provided these Jews with a psychological theory that allowed them to explain Christianity and Western civilization as the result of sexual repression. The next logical step was to promote selfish hedonism and sexual liberation, not as the end result of Communism, but as the means of bringing about revolution. This new Freudian variant of Marxism was developed by a group of scholars originally based in Frankfurt, Germany, who came to be known collectively as the Frankfurt School. Their ideology is frequently called Cultural Marxism, because it seeks revolution by transforming the culture through psychoanalysis and propaganda rather than through organization of industrial workers. Cultural Marxism has been remarkably successful in carrying out its aim, which is not surprising given our fallen nature. Carnal man has always been ruled by Eros, and he is therefore easily taken in by an ideology that promotes sexual promiscuity as a moral good.

This chapter deals with material that is obscure and tiresome, material that is written by Jewish theorists whose names are unfamiliar to a great majority of Christians. I beg that the reader have patience and strive to follow this chapter carefully. The ideas of Cultural Marxism have become completely mainstream, and the breakdown of society over the past decades is the direct result of Cultural Marxism and its promotion by Jewish individuals and organizations. In conquering the West, Cultural Marxism has succeeded where the tanks and bombs of the Soviet army failed. Understanding the arguments of Cultural Marxism and being able to counter them is key if we are to have any hope of taking our country back.

We begin with Max Horkheimer (1895-1873) and Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969), two Jewish scholars who co-authored Dialectic of Enlightenment, one of the key texts in the development of Cultural Marxism. The book was originally published in 1944, and it shows the Jewish loyalty to Marxism, Freudianism, postmodernism and pseudo-science. The authors attempted to discover why it is that Western Europe had reached such a high level of civilization during the Enlightenment, and yet still maintained a barbaric attachment to capitalism, patriotism, and other supposed evils. The elements that were already present in Marx and Freud are combined with the bile-spitting hatred that the Jew felt towards the dumb goyim who refused to abandon their faith and traditions in favor of Communism. Horkheimer and Adorno are also particularly fixated on the issue of anti-Semitism. Jews have never been liked by anyone who has ever had to live with them, and they have been kicked out of dozens of countries and communities throughout history. To the Jew, this is not evidence of any flaws in Jewish character or behavior. Rather, it is an indication of a widespread mental disorder that just so happens to infect every non-Jewish ethnic group in the world. Just as no reasonable person could be opposed to Marxism, likewise no reasonable person could have any legitimate reason for disliking the Jews. Only by curing the two related diseases of anti-Semitism and anti-Communism (both of which are caused by sexual repression and sub-conscious feelings of inadequacy) can the world enter into a truly “human” era of civilization.

The Jews of the Frankfurt School are undoubtedly secular, and yet they still view the Jewish people as the key to history and to the salvation of intolerant, anti-Semitic humanity. These Jews reject as “delusional” any suggestion that Jews are attempting to undermine society, but at the same time they affirm that Jews are superior and that the Jews ought to transform or abolish important aspects of gentile society in order to make it more Jew-friendly. In particular, Horkheimer and Adorno label Christianity, capitalism, and sexual repression as the main sources of anti-Semitism that must be done away with.

To the authors of Dialectic of Enlightenment, it is self-evident that the Gospel is false and illogical when compared with the Jewish (Talmudic) religion. Therefore, faithful Christians will always suffer from a sort of inferiority complex when they compare themselves to the Jews. Horkheimer and Adorno claim that in order to believe in Christianity, one must repress rational thought, and that anti-Semitism arises out of Christian resentment that the Jews have not made this “sacrifice of reason”. Christians “convinced themselves of Christianity as a secure possession”, and therefore they “were obliged to confirm their eternal salvation by the worldly ruin of those who refused to make the murky sacrifice of reason [i.e., the Jews]. That is the religious origin of anti-Semitism. The adherents of the religion of the Son hated the supporters of the religion of the Father as one hates those who know better” (Horkheimer, Max and Adorno, Theodor W. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. Translated by Edmund Jephcott. Stanford University Press, 2002. Page 147). In essence they are saying: forget the Pharisaic plot against Jesus, forget the persecution of the early Church by Jewish authorities, forget the evil blasphemies of the Talmud. The real cause of Christian animosity towards the Jews is a psychological flaw in Christians!

Given their harsh condemnation of the faith of Christians, one might expect that Horkheimer and Adorno would strongly support the Western tradition of logic and science. After all, the idol of “science” is commonly celebrated by those in rebellion against God. But for the Jews of the Frankfurt School, science and logic are just as much the enemy as Christianity, because science and logic were developed by capitalist society and are therefore tools of capitalist oppression. In a previous chapter we saw that Marx held all forms of thought to be shaped by economic conditions, an idea which the Cultural Marxists enthusiastically embraced, despite its impossible consequences. I say that the consequences are impossible because the Cultural Marxists do not merely claim that morality is dependent on economic factors and therefore mutable; they even dare to claim that the very rules of logic are shaped by economic exploitation based on the division of labor, and are therefore suspect:

Even the deductive form of science mirrors hierarchy and compulsion. Just as the first categories represented the organized tribe and its power over the individual, the entire logical order, with its chains of inference and dependence, the superordination and coordination of concepts, is founded on the corresponding conditions in social reality, that is, on the division of labor. (Ibid. Page 16)

This is the height of absurdity. Dismissing logic is like dismissing mathematics. Both of these branches of knowledge are demonstrable true, regardless of the economic situation in which they were developed. The rules of logic and mathematics are inherent to reality, and it is impossible to reject them and still try to make any claims about anything. As the above quote shows, logic involves analyzing reality and dividing creatures and phenomena into different categories. These categories are based upon objective characteristics and the similarity or dissimilarity of these characteristics. An example of this logical process would be dividing the animal kingdom into different species and sub-species, or dividing the constituents of matter into different families of atomic elements. Our capacity for logical thought is one of our defining characteristics as humans, but the Cultural Marxists are willing to abandon this capacity because it is an impediment to Communist revolution.

Horkheimer and Adorno say that all value judgments are unfounded (Ibid. Page 74), so we might expect them to refrain from making any value judgments themselves. This would be the logical thing to do for a man who has deemed such judgments to be impossible. But of course these Jews have rejected even logic itself, and therefore they freely make statements about what is best for humanity. When faced with value judgments they do not like, they declare value judgments to be unfounded, but then turn around that make their own value judgments about the virtues of Communism and sexual liberation. We are reminded of the Rabbis from the Talmud who claim that their arguments override the direct command of the Almighty. This Talmudic fable perfectly captures the attitude of modern Jewish intellectuals. The natural order, logic, science, even God himself; all must bow down to unhinged Jewish theory. The Jews decide what is good and what is evil, and it is insolence for a gentile to ask a Jew for a logical account of his judgments. After all, logic is a tool of gentile bourgeois oppression. Asking the Jew such questions is surely anti-Semitic.

Freud believed the repression of base desires to be the cause of human unhappiness. According to Horkheimer and Adorno, this repression not only causes us to be deprived of erotic pleasure but also makes us feel irrational hatred towards completely innocent groups. When the Christian refuses to give in to his lust, the lustful urge still remains in his psyche, and rather than acknowledging its presence, the Christian “projects” his lust onto another group. By this projection he attributes to an outside group (often the Jews) characteristics that they do not actually have, which causes him to hate the outside group instead of hating the lust within himself.

Anti-Semitism is based on false projection…false projection makes it surroundings resemble itself…displaces the volatile inward into the outer world, branding the intimate friend as foe. Impulses which are not acknowledged by the subject and yet are his, are attributed to the object: the prospective victim…The sexual impulses suppressed by humanity survived in both individuals and peoples and asserted themselves in the imaginary transformation of the surrounding world into a diabolic system. (Ibid. Page 54)

In this passage, Horkheimer and Adorno completely exonerate the Jew from any wrongdoing and claim that anti-Semitism is the result of a diseased mind. This total denial of Jewish guilt and responsibility is especially odd when discussing the charges of Jewish sexual deviance. For if the Cultural Marxists criticize Christian, capitalist society for being too prudish, then presumably a Jewish, Communist society would enjoy more sexual “freedom”. But if this is the case, then the Christian is not suffering from “false projection” when he accuses Jews and Communists of trying to destroy traditional morality. Rather, he is acting in response to an undeniable objective fact: Jewish Communists do promote sexual liberation. We should also note that Horkheimer and Adorno dismiss this accusation against the Jews as being crazy in the very same book in which they themselves argue in favor of sexual liberation. Jewish dishonesty knows no limit.

While the Cultural Marxists obviously find fault with Christianity and the sexual repression associated with it, they identify capitalism as the real culprit behind human suffering. In their view, prior to capitalism, man existed in a paradise of free erotic enjoyment, in which there was no sexual repression, no religion, no “false projection”, and therefore no prejudice. This paradise was wrecked by the introduction of capitalism, because capitalism brings about social distinction through division of labor. Division of labor is a great evil because it requires a level of social cooperation and self-control, and because it brings about a situation where immediate base desires are resisted in order to achieve long-term, communal goals. While a healthy individual would see such progress from primitive anarchy towards rational civilization as the triumph of cooperative Agape over selfishness, these Jews see only the cruel repression of Eros. It should also be noted that the primordial paradise of the Freudian-Marxists is not to be equated with the conditions of primitive natives in Africa or the Amazon, because in these societies there already exists the conceptual division between man and nature and a division of labor between men and women. Horkheimer and Adorno assert that even these early changes from the primordial chaos were brought about only by “violence”:

In the first stages of nomadism the members of the tribe still played an independent part in influencing the course of nature. The men tracked prey while the women performed tasks which did not require rigid commands. How much violence preceded the habituation to even so simple an order cannot be known. (Ibid. Page 15)

The harmonious workings of a tribe or a family where different tasks are given to those with different abilities, and where unity provides security against the dangers of the outside world— in all this, Horkheimer and Adorno can see only violence and oppression. They did not come to this conclusion from scientific evidence. Just like their hero Freud and his theory of sons murdering the primordial father, Horkheimer and Adorno are engaging in ungrounded, pseudo-scientific speculation. They completely dismiss man’s innate desire to find companionship and security in a group, and decide to define man exclusively as a creature that seeks to satisfy his own lusts. It is true that as civilization grows, man often has less opportunity for immediate gratification of animal desires, but he becomes much safer and more secure in his physical being, and he also becomes capable of a much grander, more exalted form of enjoyment: the rational enjoyment of being part of a whole that is greater than himself. Horkheimer and Adorno refuse to admit that any of these advantages of civilization actually improve the life of man. For them, civilization is a net loss:

The history of civilization is the history of the inversion of sacrifice—in other words, the history of renunciation. All who renounce give away more of their life than is given back to them, more than the life they preserve. (Ibid. Page 43)

To use a favorite word of Freudian psychology, this attitude is absolutely infantile. Putting some restraint on personal appetites in order to serve the community is simply part of becoming a mature individual. Only a madman or a spoiled child would think that a life of perpetual, immediate gratification of animal desires would be possible, or even desirable.

As is to be expected, the primitive pleasure in which Horkheimer and Adorno are most interested is sex. They speak of “sexuality’s better, prepatriarchal past” (Ibid. Page 84), where tribal orgies gave birth to the concept of pleasure. Our true essence as humans is to be found amongst these sexually depraved savages, and the civilized virtues associated with Agape are simply “pacified” forms of unrestrained, primordial Eros. By returning to this stage of savage promiscuity, man can escape from rational thought and capitalist oppression:

Only when dream absolves them of the compulsion of work, of the individual’s attachment to a particular social function and finally to a self, leading back to a primal state free of domination and discipline, do human beings feel the magic of pleasure…Thought arose in the course of liberation from terrible nature, which is finally subjugated utterly. Pleasure, so to speak, is nature’s revenge. In it human beings divest themselves of thought, escape from civilization. In earlier societies such homecoming was provided by communal festival. Primitive orgies are the collective origin of pleasure. (Ibid. Page 82)
But even the most incorporeal tenderness is transformed sexuality; the hand stroking the hair, the kiss on the brow, which express the rapture of spiritual love, are in pacified form the beating and biting which accompany the sexual act among Australian aborigines. (Ibid. Page 85)

And just as sexual morality is a weapon that capitalism uses against humanity, so sexual perversion is a weapon that revolutionaries can use against capitalism:

the criminal violation of taboos…lives on, with sublime love, as fidelity to the utopia brought near by the availability of physical pleasure to all. (Ibid. Page 86)

In these passages, one can see the essence of Cultural Marxism: the Utopian promises of Marx combined with the sexual fixation of Freud. The revolutionaries no longer sought to defeat capitalism and Christianity by educating the masses in economics. Henceforth they sought to bribe the masses with promises of limitless pleasure.

This blending of Marx and Freud was put into clearer and more explicit terms by the Jew Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979), one of the main popularizers of Cultural Marxist doctrine who became something of an intellectual idol of the 1960s hippy movement. Like Horkheimer and Adorno, Marcuse sees capitalism and sexual repression as being closely related. Marcuse bizarrely argues that capitalism brought about the limitation of sexuality to genital functions, and that in man’s natural state, all of life and all of the body is sexual. Capitalism restricted sexuality to the genitals in an effort to enslave the remainder of the human body. Sexuality is free, so in order to make man’s body an instrument of capitalist exploitation, it was necessary to “desexualize” it. According to Marcuse, the development of capitalist society “achieves the socially necessary desexualization of the body: the libido becomes concentrated in one part of the body, leaving most of the rest free for use as an instrument of labor” (Marcuse, Herbert. Eros and Civilization. Routledge, 2005. Page 48.) In turn, doing away with sexual repression would bring about the end of capitalism, the family, and civilization as we know it:

[The] unrepressed development [of the senses] would eroticize the organism to such an extent that it would counteract the desexualization of the organism required by its social utilization as an instrument of labor. (Ibid. Page 39.)
No longer used as a fulltime instrument of labor, the body would be resexualized. The regression involved in this spread of the libido would first manifest itself in a reactivation of all erotogenic zones and, consequently, in a resurgence of pregenital polyamorous sexuality…The body in its entirety would become…a thing to be enjoyed, an instrument of pleasure. This change in the value and scope of libidinal relations would lead to a disintegration of the institutions in which the private interpersonal relations have been organized, particularly the monogamic and patriarchal family. (Ibid. Page 201.)

Hence Marcuse does not simply argue in favor of promiscuity, homoxexuality, and other perversions. To be sure, he praises sexual perversion because “[t]he perversions…express rebellion against the subjugation of sexuality”(Ibid. Page 49.), but he wants something more. He wants a return to the imaginary primordial state where erotic feeling is unlimited and all of human life is completely sexualized:

Originally, the sex instinct has no extraneous temporal and spatial limitations on its subject and object; sexuality is by nature “polyamorous-perverse.”(Ibid. Page 49.)

The obvious objection to this Eros-obsessed attitude is that sexuality is inherently irrational and short-sighted, and that it therefore must be made subordinate to logic in some respect. Marcuse boldly counters this objection, not by means of rational argument, but by openly declaring that liberated Eros is capable of “transforming this world into a new mode of being”(Ibid. Page 169.) and of replacing logic as the source of human judgment. In what is one of the gravest intellectual perversions ever attempted by sinful man, Marcuse expressly and unambiguously rejects Logos in favor of Eros.

In the Greek New Testament, the Logos is the “Word” that became flesh. The Logos is the Word that was with God in the beginning, through whom everything was made. The Logos of God gives order and regularity to the creation, and this order is what allows us to possess life, consciousness and reason. Logos is also the origin of the word logic, which was developed by ancient Greek philosophers. The Greek philosophers lived without the divine light of revelation, but still dimly grasped after an orderly, governing force of the universe, which they often termed Logos, because of the inherent connection between speech and rationality. These Greeks founded Western logic and science, those capitalist evils against which Horkheimer and Adorno so stubbornly protested. Marcuse joins them in this protest, stating that the:

idea of reason becomes increasingly antagonistic to those faculties and attitudes which…tend toward gratification rather than transcendence …They appear as the unreasonable and irrational that must be conquered and contained in order to serve the progress of reason…The Logos shows forth as the logic of domination. (Ibid. Page 111.)
When philosophy conceives the essence of being as Logos, it is already the Logos of domination—commanding, mastering, directing reason, to which man and nature are to be subjected. (Ibid. Page 125.)

To the Christian, the domination of base desires is a great virtue and blessing, and this was the consensus of all Western philosophy prior to the disintegration of the modern era. And what greater good could be imagined, than to live in accordance with the instruction of the Logos that has created and governs all existence? The only argument that Marcuse brings against Logos is that it prevents unrestrained carnal indulgence, but for him this is reason enough to destroy the theological and philosophical concept of Logos entirely, and to replace it with his own “Logos”, the “logic of gratification”:

Both [the logic of domination and the will to gratification] assert their claims for defining the reality principle…[A]gainst the conception of being in terms of Logos rises the conception of being in a-logical terms: will and joy. This countertrend strives to formulate its own Logos: the logic of gratification. (Ibid. Page 124. Emphasis added.)
Eros redefines reason in his own terms. Reasonable is what sustains the order of gratification.
(Ibid. Page 224.)

This “a-logical” logic proposed by Marcuse is completely absurd and self-contradictory, but tragically, the “logos of gratification” is the ruling principle in contemporary America. Proponents of abortion, promiscuity, divorce, or homosexuality do not discuss these topics logically with an eye towards wider social ramifications. They are almost exclusively concerned with the increase in carnal pleasure that these evils bring about. In America today, that which is pleasurable is good, and that which is restrictive of Eros is evil. Our culture’s embrace of the Logos of gratification has produced a generation that is incapable of understanding economic reality, a generation that thinks perpetual borrowing and perpetual handouts are sustainable. They have subconsciously accepted Marcuse’s statement that:

Man is free only where he is free from constraint, external and internal, physical and moral—when he is constrained neither by law nor by need. But such constraint is the reality. Freedom is thus, in a strict sense, freedom from the established reality. (Ibid. Page 187.)

The Logos of gratification is the Jewish idol that has come to dominate our society. The worshipers of the true Logos who refuse to bow down to this idol are labeled as heretics— heartless bigots whose days are numbered.

Many conservatives still wonder how such a prosperous and advanced Christian nation like America could have disintegrated almost overnight. In tracing the development of Cultural Marxism, we have found part of the answer, but before we can understand how such nonsensical Jewish theory became so mainstream so quickly, it is necessary to look more closely at the greatest source of Jewish power: Hollywood.

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